Kenneth Kee - A Simple Guide To Pulmonary Fibrosis, (lung Scarring) Diagnosis, Treatment And Related Conditions
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Kenneth Kee con A Simple Guide To Pulmonary Fibrosis, (lung Scarring) Diagnosis, Treatment And Related Conditions
This book describes Pulmonary Fibrosis, Diagnosis and Treatment and Related Diseases“Singapore scientists have found that a protein, Interleukin 11, or IL11, causes fibrosis disease, which can lead to life-threatening conditions.The discovery paves the way for more effective treatment against fibrosis, where the body produces excessive connective tissue in response to an injury, causing tissue scarring.When this happens in vital organs such as the heart, kidney or lungs, it not only damages the organ, but could result in organ failure, leading to death.Fibrotic diseases represent a major cause of illness and death around the world.The discovery that IL11 is a critical fibrotic factor represents a breakthrough for the field and for drug development.So if people have advanced fibrosis, that can be turned back and the organ can become healthy again. There is a precedent that that can work, particularly in the liver, heart, lung and kidney."Fibrosis:The disorder fibrosis is the formation of fibrous connective tissue as a repairing response to injury or injury. Fibrosis may refer to the connective tissue deposition that occurs as part of normal healing or to the excess tissue deposition that occurs as a pathological process. When fibrosis occurs in reaction to damage, the word “scarring” is used. Some of the main types of fibrosis that occur in the body are:1. Pulmonary fibrosis2. Liver cirrhosis3. Cardiac fibrosis4. Kidney fibrosisPulmonary fibrosisPulmonary fibrosis is the scarring or thickening of the lungs without a known cause.Pulmonary fibrosis is a group of diseases which cause interstitial lung damage and eventually fibrosis and loss of the elasticity of the lungs. It is a chronic disorder characterized by shortness of breath, diffuse infiltrates on CXR and inflammation and fibrosis on biopsy. There are 3 types of lung fibrosis:1.Replacement fibrosis due to lung damage - e.g., infarction, tuberculosis and pneumonia.2.Focal fibrosis due to response to irritants - e.g., coal dust and silica.3.Diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), which happens in pulmonary fibrosis (PF) and extrinsic allergic alveolitisRisk factors1.Smoking - if there is a smoking history of >20 pack years.2.The disorder is frequent in certain occupations – such as silica, asbestos, heavy metals or mouldy foliage.3.Environmental factors are pigeon breeding and contaminated ventilation systems.4.Chronic viral infections particularly hepatitis C and Epstein-Barr viruses.5.Gastro-esophageal reflux disorderCausesThe cause and pathogenesis of PF is not knownSymptomsWhen the patient has PF, the lungs become scarred and fibrotic. This makes it difficult for the patient to breatheSymptoms:1.Chest pain2.Cough (normally dry)3.Not as active4.Shortness of breath Signs:1.Fine bilateral inspiratory crackles2.Clubbing of the fingers (25-50%)3.Normal spirometry or impaired spirometry4.Pulmonary hypertension: loud P2 of the second heart sound, a fixed split S2, a holosystolic tricuspid regurgitation murmur, ankle edema DiagnosisThe diagnosis of pulmonary fibrosis should be thought of in any patient with breathlessnessChest x-ray may show evidence of fibrosis changesChest CT scanPerforming CT scans of the thorax (including high-resolution images - HRCT) may reveal pattern of usual interstitial pneumoniaTreatmentThere is no known cure for PF. Treatment is aimed at relieving symptoms and slowing disease progression:Other treatment are:1.Encourage tobacco users to quit2.Prescribe oxygen therapySurgeryLung transplant (best treatment)MedicineAnti-fibrotic agents (pirfenidone)Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (nintedanib)TABLE OF CONTENTIntroductionChapter 1 Pulmonary FibrosisChapter 2 CausesChapter 3 SymptomsChapter 4 DiagnosisChapter 5 TreatmentChapter 6 PrognosisChapter 7 Fibrocystic Breast ConditionChapter 8 Liver CirrhosisEpilogue
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